* GLOSSARY OF KEY GREEK WORDS

This list, with some modifications, is taken from Greek Glossary which is part of the Powers of Literature website which provides a wealth of useful information.

Depending on context, adjectives in -os (masc.), may be given with other endings:-ê (fem.),-on (neut.),-oi (masc. pl.),-ai (fem. pl.), -a (neut. pl.).

agathos good, noble

agôn, pl. agônes coming together; contest; agony; ordeal; trial

agorâ, pl. agorai public assembly, place of public assembly

aidôs shame, sense of shame; sense of respect for others; honorableness

ainos authoritative utterance for and by a social group; praise; fable; ainigma riddle

aitios responsible, guilty; aitiâ responsibility, guilt; cause, case

akhos grief, public expression of grief by way of lamentation or keening

alêthês (adjective) true, true things; alêtheia (noun) truth

aretê striving for a noble goal, for high ideals; noble goal, high ideals

aristos best, superlative of agathos; aristeia: designates the hero's great epic moments that demonstrate his being aristos

atê, pl. atai veering, aberration, derangement; disaster; punishment for disaster

âthlos (aethlos) contest, ordeal; âthlêtês athlete

biâ (biê in the language of Homeric poetry) force, violence

daimôn, pl. daimones supernatural force (= unspecified god or hero) intervening in human life; eudaimôniâ state of being blessed with a good daimôn

dêmos, pl. dêmoi district, population of a district; community

dikê, pl. dikai judgment (short-range); justice (long-range); dikaios just

ekhthros enemy [within the community], non-philos

epos, pl. epea utterance, poetic utterance

eris strife, conflict

esthlos genuine, good, noble; synonym of agathos

genos stock ("breeding"); generating [of something or someone]; generation

hêrôs, pl. hêrôes hero

hêsukhos serene; hêsukhiâ state of being hêsukhos

hieros sacred, holy

hôrâ, pl. hôrai season, seasonality; time; timeliness

hubris outrage, setting oneself up as godlike, arrogance (etc.)

kakos bad, evil, base, worthless, ignoble; kakotês state of being kakos; debasement

kerdos, pl. kerdea gain, profit; desire for gain; craft employed for gain; craftiness

kharis, pl. kharites reciprocity, give-and-take, reciprocal relationship; initiation of reciprocal relationship; the pleasure or beauty derived from reciprocity, from a reciprocal relationship; gratification; grace, gracefulness; favor, favorableness

khoros chorus = group of singers/dancers

kleos, pl. klea glory, fame (especially as conferred by poetry); that which is heard

koros being satiated; being insatiable

kosmos arrangement, order, law and order, the social order, the universal order

krînô sort out, separate, decide, judge

lussa rage, fury, frenzy. This word id related to lukos wolf, so the image is one of wolf-like rage.

mantis seer, prophet

mênis supernatural anger

menos power, life-force, activation (divinely infused into cosmic forces, like fire and wind, or into heroes); a partial synonym of thûmos; a partial synonym of mênis

mêtis artifice, stratagem, cunning intelligence. A second meaning, used in the episode of Odysseus and the Cyclops, is nobody.

moira, pl. moirai plot of land; portion; lot in life, fate, destiny

mûthos special speech; special utterance; myth

nemesis the process whereby everyone gets what he or she deserves

nomos, pl. nomoi local custom; customary law; law

noos: designates realm of consciousness, of rational functions; intuition, perception; principle that reintegrates thûmos (or menos) and psukhê after death

nostos return, homecoming; song about homecoming; return to light and life

oikos house, abode; resting place of cult hero; family line; verb oikeô have an abode

olbios blessed, blissful; fortunate'; olbos bliss (pictured as material security)

paskhô suffer, experience, be treated [badly or well]; pathos suffering, experience

penthos grief, public expression of grief by way of lamentation or keening

philos friend (noun); dear, near-and-dear, belonging to self (adjective); philotês or philiâ the state of being philos

phrên, pl. phrenes: physical localization of the thûmos

polis city, city-state

ponos ordeal, labor, pain

pontos sea (crossing)

psukhê, pl. psukhai: synonym of thûmos (or menos) at the moment of death; essence of life while one is alive; conveyor of identity while one is dead

sêma, pl. sêmata sign, signal, symbol; tomb'; sêmainô (verb) indicate, use a sêma

sophos skilled, skilled in understanding special language; sophiâ being sophos

sôphrôn balanced, with equilibrium, moderate; sôphrosunê being sôphrôn

sôtêr savior (either bringing to safety or, mystically, bringing back to life); sôtêriâ safety, salvation; sôzô (verb) save; be a sôtêr (for someone)

stasis division in a group; strife; division [= part of an organization, like a chorus]

telos coming full circle, rounding out, fulfillment, completion, ending, end; successfully passing through an ordeal; ritual, rite

themis, pl. themistes something divinely ordained

therapôn, pl. therapontes attendant, minister; ritual substitute

thûmos: designates realm of consciousness, of rational and emotional functions

tîmê, pl. tîmai honor; honor paid to a supernatural force by way of cult

turannos, pl. turannoi (Lydian word for king): king (from the viewpoint of most Greek dynasties); unconstitutional ruler (from the viewpoint of Greek democracy)

xenos, pl. xenoi stranger who should be treated like a guest by a host, or like a host by a guest; xeniâ reciprocal relationship between xenoi; when the rules of xeniâ do not work, a xenos risks defaulting to the status of simply a stranger.

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