Visualisation
A visualisation basd on creating a "Pure Land" space and inviting into it significant people from one's life, creating for them a suitable setting and giving gifts.

Seminar
We reflected further on the question of how to develop empathy. It is not really that we lack good heartedness so much as that one’s heart is locked up. It has become covered in scales, hidden under a thick skin developed through the experience of life.

We talked about the scales around the heart developed through incidents when our love was not received. Rejections make us develop a thick skin. However there are gaps between the scales. The love seeps out in small signs. In therapy we have to pay very careful attention to these small signs coming from the client. They are the tell-tale signals of what has happened to the heart of the client.

We also talked about the usefulness of practices - both therapy exercises and spiritual practice. Recent research on brain plasticity has reinforced interest in the Buddhist methods for developing positive mental qualities. Frequent repetition of compassionate thoughts develops that part of the brain and counteracts our negative tendencies of mind. However, there is a limit to what can be done by conscious deliberate effort.

As example we looked at the story of Queen Vaidehi in the Contemplation Sutra. A person who had no particular religious training had a profound awakening experience precipitated by the combination of (a) the extremity of her distressing situation and (b) the presence of the inspiration of the Buddha’s love. The Buddha then gives Ananda a practice exercise that imitates the experience of Vaidehi, but this imitative experience cannot be as strong as the original. When the experience is constructed deliberately we remain in control, but when it comesspontaneously our control is overwhelmed and the effect is much more powerful. The Four Sights that led the Buddha to his first “going forth” illustrate the same principle: he encountered disease, old age and death and, at the same time, the experience of seeing a sadhu exhibiting the liberated life. This combination of dukkha and inspiring example brought about a change of direction in his life.

Therapy is similar. The way of being of the therapist provides the inspiration and the work takes the client deep into his dukkha (anguish). The combination of these two factors produces a kind of “chemical” reaction within the person. There is a transformation, experienced as an awakening. This awakens the tender heart of the client.


Lecture

Introduced the idea of 3 levels
- Superficial
- Rational
- Heart

Communication about a topic can occur on any of these levels. We can refer to something, yet stay within the bounds of polite conversation. We can go into an issue but try only to work with it in a logical, problem-solving manner, or we can fully enter into the heart experience of it. In therapy we are generally helping the client to go down a level into a deeper experience.


Developed this into the Buddhist mind model
- Senses (6 Ayatana)
- Manas
- Alaya

This is the "eight vijnana model" of the mind which developed around the time of the early Mahayana, perhaps a little after the time of Nagarjuna. Before that texts generally refer to the six vijnanas, which are the five object relating senses - sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste - plus the mano-vijnana which is the "mind's eye". These six vijnanas are also called six ayatana. Ayatana literally means "uncontrolable". The sense of ayatana is that the senses pick up things without us being in full control of what they grasp onto. The sense of vijnana is that they cut the world up into manageable pieces. These pieces are the rupas that then condition our mind.

Beyond the senses is manas. Manas is the calculator. This is the cognitive processing part of the mind. Beyond manas is the alaya. The six ayatanas plus manas and the alaya make up the eight vijnanas. Manas receives material from the senses and from the alaya and organises it. Manas does not make new material but it makes novel arrangements of the content of the mind. Manas is the problem solver. The alaya is the "storehouse". It contains all the material brought forward from the past. This includes all the karmic seeds plus the experience of this life, including the past results of the work of manas.

When we are new to therapy we tend to use manas too much. We try to work everything out rationally. This means that we try to identify and define a problem and then we try to solve it as though it were a logic puzzle. This is because we do not have sufficient faith or trust in the natural working of the heart/mind.

Digression on the topic of consciousness

I suggested that some distortion has entered into the interpretation of Buddhism because of the tendency of Wester philosophy - especially the "enlightenment philosophy" of the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries to privilege rationality and to see the conscious mind as superior to the unconscious mind. This has led to the idea that the aim of Buddhism is to be in a state of sharp conscious awareness all of the time. To do so however is (a) impossible (b) unhealthy. It is important that the mind have space to wander and dream. This mind wandering time is the source of creativity and it is also the time when we digest past experience. Without it it is impossible to make any sense of life. There is a time for conscious awareness and at that time it is good to have the ability to concentrate and think clearly; but there is also time for the mind to be in a less conscious condition when it can do things spontaneously - time or "free association" when one is not in control.

Thus, in many translations of Buddhist texts, vijnana is translated as "consciousness" and this then tends to be taken to mean consciousness as opposed to (rather than as including) the unconscious mind. This leads to the idea of getting rid of the unconscious, yet the unconscious is not only a source of trouble, it is also the source of wisdom. Also, we have to ask, "conscious of what?" When one concentrates upon one thing, many other things disappear from awareness. One cannot be conscious of everything. Consciousness inevitably only focusses upon one bit of the perceptual field.

The true goal is not that one be conscious and aware all the time, but rather that one's virtue become so well internalised that it becomes second nature. When something is completely well learnt, one is no longer consciously aware of what one knows. When learning (to drive a car, for instance) one is conscious of every move, but when one has learnt (eg. when one can drive well) one does not think about it, one just does it and most of what one does (accelerating, changing gears, turning the steering wheel) one does without any particular consciousness. It is completely integrated. A truly generous person is not particularly conscious of being generous - he just does what seems obvious to him.

In therapy the therapist needs to have skill in concentration, but many of the most important things happen out of conscious awareness.

Trusting the heart/mind

It is important therefore to have faith in the process that is happening (a) inside the client, (b) between the client and the primary rupa(s), and (c) between the client and therapist. The therapist cannot possibly be aware of all dimensions at the same time. If she is focussed upon "the problem" she is probably missing the expression on the client's face; if she is watching his expression and body language she may have forgotten what he said five minutes ago; if she is remembering everything he said she may not notice that he is visualising a significant rupa; if she is noticing his relationship to important rupas, she has no time to analyse whether the story he has told makes logical sense; and so on. The therapist has to have faith that many dimensions of the process will unfold naturally; that if she has the right good hearted attitude and keeps the client focussed upon the conditions that are most relevant, everything will work out of its own accord.

This, however, is not a weakness, it is a strength. What the client gets from therapy above all else is an increased faith in life and it is important that this is modelled by the therapist. The therapist believes in the client. The client might not believe in himself, but he starts to sense that the therapist has faith in him. This confidence is infectious and the client gradually gets and increase in his own confidence.

To say that people lack faith in this way is really the same thing as saying that their heart has been hidden by scales. The faith is there, but it is buried. Life is difficult. we receive many knocks. Sometimes we become anxious. Sometimes we can only cope by practising denial. There is a middle way between anxiety and denial, but it is not always easy to find. 

When we do not have confidence in the client we try to control him, but this can never really work for long. The client is responsible for his own life. The inexperienced counsellor tends to pass moral judgement on everything the client says and then wants to force the client to fit into the therapist's ideals. This, however, is not therapy - it is just the therapist using the client in the service of her own ego. We looked at a stereotypical example - a client who beats his son - and discussed in small groups how one counsels somebody who does things one disagrees with.


Qustion and Answer

Q: Is 24/7 consciousness the goal? - this is answered in the discussion above

Q: What was meant by saying that "imagination as bridge"?

A: The "bridge" has two ends. One end is in our conscious, deliberate mind and the other is beyond. Thus in the case of the vision of Queen Videhi, the visualisation practised by Ananda was contrived by his deliberate intention, but the vision that came to Videhi herself came from the other side of the bridge. We might say that the other side is the "other shore" referred to in Buddhism, or is the Pure Land, or we might say that it is the unconscious mind or whatever. Phenomenologically, it comes to us. It comes from somewhere beyond the conscious mind.

Q: Is senile dementia a loss of alaya?

A: Certainly in senile dementia that person loses contact with much of the memory of this present life. Whether that memory is destroyed or siply becomes inaccessible is difficult to tell. Reminiscence therapy can have some success in helping people to restore some memory, though results are usually modest. To some extent this matter remains a mystery.

Q: How can the faith of the client be increased?

Essentially there are two routes. One is by resolving the obstacles to faith in the client's life. The other is through the infectious nature of faith of therapist. Therapy is a mixture of the effects of the work that the client does by relating to the significant rupas in his life and the effects of being in the relationship with the therapist. These two work together.

Practical work

Finally we did some counselling exercises, working in threes.

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20180809 Course One Day Three

Posted by David Brazier on August 9, 2017 at 14:13 in KOREA 2017

 Translated into Korean by Jaesung Kim

한글 번역: 김재성

 

 

Visualisation

A visualisation basd on creating a "Pure Land" space and inviting into it significant people from one's life, creating for them a suitable setting and giving gifts.

 

시각화

마음속으로 "정토" 공간을 만들고 자신의 삶에서 중요한 사람들을 초대하여 그들을 위한 적절한 환경을 조성하고 선물을 주는 것에 기반 한 시각화 연습. (좌선 자세로 앉아 20분 정도 진행)

 

Seminar 세미나

We reflected further on the question of how to develop empathy. It is not really that we lack good heartedness so much as that one’s heart is locked up. It has become covered in scales, hidden under a thick skin developed through the experience of life.

우리는 공감을 개발하는 방법에 대한 문제를 더 숙고했습니다. 우리의 마음이 잠겨있는 것만큼 실제로 좋은 가슴이 부족한 것은 아닙니다. 그것(좋은 가슴)은 삶의 경험을 통해 개발된 두꺼운 피부 아래 숨겨진 비늘로 덮여 있습니다.

 

We talked about the scales around the heart developed through incidents when our love was not received. Rejections make us develop a thick skin. However there are gaps between the scales. The love seeps out in small signs. In therapy we have to pay very careful attention to these small signs coming from the client. They are the tell-tale signals of what has happened to the heart of the client.

우리는 사랑을 받지 못한 사건을 통해 자라난 가슴 주위의 비늘에 대해 이야기했습니다. 거부로 인해 우리는 두꺼운 피부를 만듭니다. 그러나 비늘 사이에는 틈이 있습니다. 사랑은 작은 징후로부터 스며나옵니다. 치료에서 우리는 내담자로부터 오는 이러한 작은 징후들에 매우 세심한 주의를 기울여야합니다. 그것들은 내담자의 가슴에서 일어난 일에 대한 이야기의 신호들입니다.

 

We also talked about the usefulness of practices - both therapy exercises and spiritual practice. Recent research on brain plasticity has reinforced interest in the Buddhist methods for developing positive mental qualities. Frequent repetition of compassionate thoughts develops that part of the brain and counteracts our negative tendencies of mind. However, there is a limit to what can be done by conscious deliberate effort.

우리는 또한 치료 실습과 영적 실천의 두 가지 실천의 유용성에 대해서도 이야기했습니다. 뇌의 가소성에 관한 최근의 연구는 긍정적인 정신의 자질들을 개발하기 위한 불교적 방법에 대한 관심을 강화시켰습니다. 자비로운 생각을 자주 반복하면, 뇌의 일부가 발달하고 우리의 부정적인 마음의 경향을 없애버리게 됩니다. 그러나 의식적인 신중한 노력으로 할 수 있는 것에는 한계가 있습니다.

 

As example we looked at the story of Queen Vaidehi in the Contemplation Sutra. A person who had no particular religious training had a profound awakening experience precipitated by the combination of (a) the extremity of her distressing situation and (b) the presence of the inspiration of the Buddha’s love. The Buddha then gives Ananda a practice exercise that imitates the experience of Vaidehi, but this imitative experience cannot be as strong as the original. When the experience is constructed deliberately we remain in control, but when it comes spontaneously our control is overwhelmed and the effect is much more powerful. The Four Sights that led the Buddha to his first “going forth” illustrate the same principle: he encountered disease, old age and death and, at the same time, the experience of seeing a sadhu exhibiting the liberated life. This combination of dukkha and inspiring example brought about a change of direction in his life.

예를들면, 우리는 <관무량수경>의 위데히Vaidehi 왕비의 이야기를 살펴보았습니다. 특별한 종교적 훈련을 받지 않은 사람은 (a) 극단적으로 비참한 상황(남편 빔비사라왕이 아들 아자따사뚜의 구데타에 의해 유폐되어 시해된 사건)과 (b) 부처님의 자비의 원력의 현존의 결합에 의해 심오한 깨달음의 경험을 했습니다. 붓다Buddha는 그 때 위데히의 경험을 모방하는 수련법을 아난다Ananda에게 줍니다, 그러나 이 모방 경험은 본래처럼 강할 수 없습니다. 경험이 고의적으로 만들어지면 우리는 통제 하에 있지만, 그 경험이 자발적으로 나타날 때, 우리의 통제력은 압도되고 효과는 훨씬 강력해집니다. 석가모니 붓다가 (왕자시절에) “출가”로 이끌었던 네 가지 광경의 첫 번째도 같은 원리를 보여줍니다. 그는 병자, 노인, 죽은 자와 함께 해방된 삶을 보여주는 사두(sadhu-수행자)를 보는 경험을 했습니다. 괴로움dukkha과 고무적인 사례가 결합되었기에 인생의 방향이 바뀌었습니다.

 

Therapy is similar. The way of being of the therapist provides the inspiration and the work takes the client deep into his dukkha (anguish). The combination of these two factors produces a kind of “chemical” reaction within the person. There is a transformation, experienced as an awakening. This awakens the tender heart of the client.

치료도 비슷합니다. 치료자의 존재의 방식은 영감을 제공하고 치료 작업을 통해 내담자는 dukkha (고뇌)에 깊이 빠져 들게 됩니다. 이 두 요소의 결합은 그 사람 속에서는 일종의 "화학적인" 반응이 일어납니다. 그 때 깨달음으로 경험되는 변형이 있습니다. 이것은 내담자의 부드러운 가슴을 일깨웁니다.

 

Lecture 강의

 

Introduced the idea of 3 levels

- Superficial

- Rational

- Heart

3 단계 아이디어의 도입

- 피상적인 단계

- 이성적인 단계

- 가슴의 단계

 

Communication about a topic can occur on any of these levels. We can refer to something, yet stay within the bounds of polite conversation. We can go into an issue but try only to work with it in a logical, problem-solving manner, or we can fully enter into the heart experience of it. In therapy we are generally helping the client to go down a level into a deeper experience.

한 주제에 관한 소통은 이러한 세 가지 수준 어디에서나 발생할 수 있습니다. 우리는 무언가를 참조할 수 있지만, 여전히 정중한(피상적인) 대화의 범위 안에 머물 수 있습니다. 우리는 문제 속으로 들어갈 수 있지만, 오직 논리적인 문제-해결 방식으로 그 문제를 다룰 수 있거나, 그 문제에 대한 가슴의 경험 속으로 완전히 들어갈 수 있습니다. 치료에서 우리는 일반적으로 내담자가 더 깊은 경험으로 한 단계 아래로 내려갈 수 있도록 돕습니다.

 

Developed this into the Buddhist mind model

- Senses (6 Ayatana)

- Manas

- Alaya

 

이것을 불교의 마음 모델로 발전시키면 다음과 같습니다.

- 감각 (6 아야타나 六入) - 안이비설신의의 6 감관

- 마나스 – 7 말나식

- 알라야 – 8 알라야식

 

This is the "eight vijnana model" of the mind which developed around the time of the early Mahayana, perhaps a little after the time of Nagarjuna. Before that texts generally refer to the six vijnanas, which are the five object relating senses - sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste - plus the mano-vijnana which is the "mind's eye". These six vijnanas are also called six ayatana. Ayatana literally means "uncontrolable". The sense of ayatana is that the senses pick up things without us being in full control of what they grasp onto. The sense of vijnana is that they cut the world up into manageable pieces. These pieces are the rupas that then condition our mind.

이것은 초기 이후 대승Mahayana 시대에 개발된 마음의 "8식vijnana 모델"입니다. 아마도 나가르주나Nagarjuna(용수, 150~250)의 시대 보다 조금 후대에 나타났습니다. 그 문헌(유식학파의 문헌) 이전에는 일반적으로 6식vijnanas을 언급합니다. 시각, 청각, 후각, 미각 및 촉각과 관련된 다섯 가지 식(識)과 "마음의 눈"인 의식mano-vijnana입니다. 이 6개의 식vijnanas은 6개의 ayatana(六入, 六處)라고도합니다. 아야타나는 말 그대로 "통제 할 수 없는" 것을 의미합니다. 아야타나의 의미는 우리들(경험주체)은 배제된 채, 감각이 집착하는 대상에 완전히 통제되어 대상을 선택한다는 뜻입니다, vijnana의 의미는 그것들이 세상을 다룰수 있는 조각으로 잘랐다는 뜻입니다. 이 조각들이 우리 마음을 조절하는 루빠들입니다.

 

Beyond the senses is manas. Manas is the calculator. This is the cognitive processing part of the mind. Beyond manas is the alaya. The six ayatanas plus manas and the alaya make up the eight vijnanas. Manas receives material from the senses and from the alaya and organises it. Manas does not make new material but it makes novel arrangements of the content of the mind. Manas is the problem solver. The alaya is the "storehouse". It contains all the material brought forward from the past. This includes all the karmic seeds plus the experience of this life, including the past results of the work of manas.

감각 너머에는 마나스Manas가 있습니다. 마나스s는 계산기입니다. 이것은 마음의 인지 처리 부분입니다. 마나스 너머에는 알라야가 있습니다. 6개의 ayatanas와 manas와 alaya가 8 개의 식vijnanas를 구성합니다. 마나스는 6 가지 감각과 알라야의 재료를 받아 그것을 조직합니다. 마나스Manas는 새로운 재료를 만들지는 않지만, 마음의 내용을 새롭게 배열합니다. 마나스Manas는 문제 해결사입니다. 알라야는 "창고"입니다. 그것은 과거로부터 가져온 모든 재료를 포함합니다. 이것은 모든 업의 씨앗과 마나스의 작업의 과거 결과를 포함하여 이 삶의 경험을 포함합니다.

 

When we are new to therapy we tend to use manas too much. We try to work everything out rationally. This means that we try to identify and define a problem and then we try to solve it as though it were a logic puzzle. This is because we do not have sufficient faith or trust in the natural working of the heart/mind.

우리가 처음 치료를 할 때, 우리는 마나스를 너무 많이 사용하는 경향이 있습니다. 우리는 합리적으로 모든 것을 처리하려고 노력합니다. 이것은 우리가 문제를 식별하고 정의하려고 시도한 다음 논리적 퍼즐처럼 그것을 해결하려고 한다는 것을 의미합니다. 이것은 우리가 마음이나 가슴의 자연스러운 작동에 대한 충분한 믿음이나 신뢰가 없기 때문입니다.

 

Digression on the topic of consciousness

I suggested that some distortion has entered into the interpretation of Buddhism because of the tendency of Western philosophy - especially the "enlightenment philosophy" of the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries to privilege rationality and to see the conscious mind as superior to the unconscious mind. This has led to the idea that the aim of Buddhism is to be in a state of sharp conscious awareness all of the time. To do so however is (a) impossible (b) unhealthy. It is important that the mind have space to wander and dream. This mind wandering time is the source of creativity and it is also the time when we digest past experience. Without it, it is impossible to make any sense of life. There is a time for conscious awareness and at that time it is good to have the ability to concentrate and think clearly; but there is also time for the mind to be in a less conscious condition when it can do things spontaneously – time or "free association" when one is not in control.

 

의식 주제에 대한 여담

나는 서구 철학, 특히 18 세기에서 19세기의 "계몽 철학"이 합리성을 특권으로 삼아서 의식의 정신이 무의식의 정신보다 우월하다고 보는 경향 때문에 불교의 해석에 약간의 왜곡이 들어갔음을 제시했습니다. 이것은 불교의 목적이 언제나 날카로운 의식의 자각 상태에 있어야한다는 사상으로 이어졌습니다. 그러나 그렇게 하는 것은 (1)불가능하고 (b) 건강에도 좋지 않습니다. 이 마음이 방황하고 꿈을 만날 수 있는 공간을 갖는 것은 중요합니다. 이 마음이 방황하는 시간은 창의성의 원천이며 과거 경험을 소화 할 때이기도 합니다. 그것 없이는 어떤 삶의 의미도 만들 수 없습니다. 의식하는 자각을 위한 시간이 있으며, 집중하고 명확하게 사고 할 수 있는 능력을 가지는 것은 좋은 일입니다. 그러나 마음이 즉각적으로 무엇을 할 수 있을 때, 마음이 덜 의식적인 조건에 있을 때도 있습니다. 시간이나 “자유 연상”은 사람이 통제 할 수 없을 때 생겨납니다.

 

Thus, in many translations of Buddhist texts, vijnana is translated as "consciousness" and this then tends to be taken to mean consciousness as opposed to (rather than as including) the unconscious mind. This leads to the idea of getting rid of the unconscious, yet the unconscious is not only a source of trouble, it is also the source of wisdom. Also, we have to ask, "conscious of what?" When one concentrates upon one thing, many other things disappear from awareness. One cannot be conscious of everything. Consciousness inevitably only focusses upon one bit of the perceptual field.

따라서 불교 문헌의 많은 번역에서 vijnana는 "의식"으로 번역되고 이것은 무의식(을 포함하기 보다는)에 반대의 의미로 의식을 의미하는 경향이 있습니다. 이것은 무의식을 없애는 사상으로 인도합니다. 그러나 무의식은 문제의 원천 일뿐만 아니라 지혜의 원천이기도합니다. 또한, 우리는 "무엇을 의식하고 있는가?" 우리가 한 대상에 집중하면 다른 많은 것들은 자각에서 사라집니다. 우리는 모든 것을 의식할 수 없습니다. 의식은 필연적으로 지각 영역의 일부에만 초점을 맞춥니다.

 

The true goal is not that one be conscious and aware all the time, but rather that one's virtue become so well internalised that it becomes second nature. When something is completely well learnt, one is no longer consciously aware of what one knows. When learning (to drive a car, for instance) one is conscious of every move, but when one has learnt (eg. when one can drive well) one does not think about it, one just does it and most of what one does (accelerating, changing gears, turning the steering wheel) one does without any particular consciousness. It is completely integrated. A truly generous person is not particularly conscious of being generous - he just does what seems obvious to him.

진정한 목표는 항상 의식하고 자각하는 것이 아니라 오히려 자신의 미덕이 내면화되어 제2의 본성이 된다는 것입니다. 무언가를 완전히 배웠을 때, 사람들은 더 이상 의식적으로 자신이 아는 것을 자각하지 못합니다. (예를 들어 자동차 운전을) 배울 때, 모든 움직임을 의식하고 있지만, 배우고 난 다음에는 (예를 들어, 사람이 운전을 잘할 때) 운전에 대해서 생각하지 않습니다. 그냥 운전할 뿐입니다. 운전할 때 하는 대부분의 일(가속기를 밟는 것, 기어를 바꾸는 것, 핸들을 돌리는 것)을 특별한 의식없이 하는 것입니다. 그것은 완전히 통합되어 있습니다. 진정으로 관대한 사람은 관대하다는 것을 특별히 의식하지 않습니다. 그는 자신에게 분명하게 보이는 것을 할 뿐입니다.

 

In therapy the therapist needs to have skill in concentration, but many of the most important things happen out of conscious awareness.

치료에서 치료자는 집중하는 기술이 있어야하지만 가장 중요한 것들은 의식하는 자각에서 생깁니다.

 

Trusting the heart/mind

 

It is important therefore to have faith in the process that is happening (a) inside the client, (b) between the client and the primary rupa(s), and (c) between the client and therapist. The therapist cannot possibly be aware of all dimensions at the same time. If she is focussed upon "the problem" she is probably missing the expression on the client's face; if she is watching his expression and body language she may have forgotten what he said five minutes ago; if she is remembering everything he said she may not notice that he is visualising a significant rupa; if she is noticing his relationship to important rupas, she has no time to analyse whether the story he has told makes logical sense; and so on. The therapist has to have faith that many dimensions of the process will unfold naturally; that if she has the right good hearted attitude and keeps the client focussed upon the conditions that are most relevant, everything will work out of its own accord.

 

마음/가슴 신뢰하기

 

따라서 (a) 내담자 내부, (b) 내담자와 주요 루빠 사이, (c) 내담자와 치료자 사이에서 일어나는 과정에 대해 신념을 갖는 것이 중요합니다. 치료자는 동시에 모든 차원을 자각할 수 없습니다. 치료자가 "문제"에 집중한다면 그 치료자는 아마도 내담자의 얼굴 표정을 놓칠 것입니다. 치료자가 내담자의 표현과 몸짓 언어를 보고 있다면, 내담자가 5분 전에 말한 것을 잊어 버렸을지도 모릅니다. 내담자가 말한 모든 것을 치료자가 기억한다면 치료자는 내담자가 중요한 루빠를 시각화하고 있음을 알아차리지 못할수도 있습니다. 치료자가 내담자와 그의 중요한 루빠와의 관계를 알아차리면, 내담자가 말한 이야기가 논리적인 의미를 가지는지 여부를 분석 할 시간이 없습니다. 등등. 치료자는 여러 차원의 과정이 자연스럽게 전개될 것이라는 믿음을 가져야합니다. 치료자가 바르고 좋은 마음가짐을 갖고 내담자가 가장 관련 있는 조건에 집중하는 경우, 모든 것은 조화롭게 작동할 것입니다.

 

This, however, is not a weakness, it is a strength. What the client gets from therapy above all else is an increased faith in life and it is important that this is modelled by the therapist. The therapist believes in the client. The client might not believe in himself, but he starts to sense that the therapist has faith in him. This confidence is infectious and the client gradually gets and increase in his own confidence.

그러나 이것은 약점이 아니라 힘입니다. 내담자가 무엇보다도 치료에서 얻는 것은 삶에 대한 믿음의 증가이며 치료자가 모델이 되는 것이 중요합니다. 치료자는 내담자를 믿습니다. 내담자는 자기 자신을 믿을 수는 없겠지만 치료자가 자기에 대한 믿음을 가지고 있다는 것을 느끼기 시작합니다. 이러한 확신은 전염성이 있으며 내담자는 점차 자신에 대한 확신을 얻고 키웁니다.

 

To say that people lack faith in this way is really the same thing as saying that their heart has been hidden by scales. The faith is there, but it is buried. Life is difficult. we receive many knocks. Sometimes we become anxious. Sometimes we can only cope by practising denial. There is a middle way between anxiety and denial, but it is not always easy to find.

사람들이 이런 방식으로 사람들이 믿음이 부족하다고 말하는 것은 그들의 마음이 비늘로 숨겨져 있다고 말하는 것과 실제로 같은 것입니다. 그곳에 믿음이 있지만 묻혀있습니다. 인생은 힘듭니다. 우리는 많은 타격을 입습니다. 때때로 우리는 불안해합니다. 때때로 우리는 거부를 연습함으로써 만 대처할 수 있습니다. 불안과 부정 사이에는 중간 경로가 있지만 항상 쉽게 찾을 수있는 것은 아닙니다.

 

 

When we do not have confidence in the client we try to control him, but this can never really work for long. The client is responsible for his own life. The inexperienced counsellor tends to pass moral judgement on everything the client says and then wants to force the client to fit into the therapist's ideals. This, however, is not therapy - it is just the therapist using the client in the service of her own ego. We looked at a stereotypical example - a client who beats his son - and discussed in small groups how one counsels somebody who does things one disagrees with.

우리가 내담자에게 확신이 없을 때 우리는 그를 통제하려고 노력하지만 실제로 절대 오랫동안 작동할 수는 없습니다. 내담자는 자신의 삶을 책임집니다. 경험이 부족한 상담자는 내담자가 말하는 모든 것에 도덕적 판단을 내리려는 경향이 있어 내담자가 치료자의 이상에 강제로 들어맞게 합니다. 그러나 이것은 치료가 아닙니다. 그것은 자신의 에고를 위해 내담자를 사용하는 치료자 일뿐입니다. 우리는 고정 관념의 예를 보았습니다, – 자신의 아들을 때리는 내담자 – 그리고 소그룹에서 다른 사람이 동의하지 않는 일을 하는 사람을 어떻게 상담하는지 논의했습니다.

 

Qustion and Answer 질의 응답

 

Q: Is 24/7 consciousness the goal? - this is answered in the discussion above

질문 : 24시간 일주일 내내 의식(이 깨어있는 것)이 목표입니까? - 답 이것은 위의 토론에서 대답했습니다.

 

Q: What was meant by saying that "imagination as bridge"?

Q : "다리로서의 상상"이란 말은 무엇을 의미합니까?

 

A: The "bridge" has two ends. One end is in our conscious, deliberate mind and the other is beyond. Thus in the case of the vision of Queen Videhi, the visualisation practised by Ananda was contrived by his deliberate intention, but the vision that came to Videhi herself came from the other side of the bridge. We might say that the other side is the "other shore" referred to in Buddhism, or is the Pure Land, or we might say that it is the unconscious mind or whatever. Phenomenologically, it comes to us. It comes from somewhere beyond the conscious mind.

A : "다리"에는 두 끝이 있습니다. 한쪽 끝은 우리의 의식적이고 고의적인 마음에 있고 다른 쪽 끝은 (그것을) 넘어서 있습니다. 따라서 비데히(Videhi) 왕비의 비전의 경우을 보면, 아난다 (Ananda)가 실행한 시각화는 고의적인 의도에 의해 고안되었지만, 비데히(Videhi) 자신에게 제공된 비전은 다리 건너편에서 나왔습니다. 우리는 다른 쪽이 불교에서 언급 된 "저 언덕(彼岸)"이거나 정토라고 말할 수 있습니다. 또는 그것이 무의식적인 마음이라고 말할 수 있습니다. 현상학적으로, 그것이 우리에게 옵니다. 그것은 의식적인 마음을 초월한 곳에서 온 것입니다.

 

Q: Is senile dementia a loss of alaya?

Q : 노인성 치매는 알라야의 손실입니까?

 

A: Certainly in senile dementia that person loses contact with much of the memory of this present life. Whether that memory is destroyed or simply becomes inaccessible is difficult to tell. Reminiscence therapy can have some success in helping people to restore some memory, though results are usually modest. To some extent this matter remains a mystery.

A : 확실히 노인성 치매에 걸린 사람은 이 현재의 삶의 기억의 많은 부분과 접촉하지 않습니다. 그 기억이 파괴되었거나 단순회 접근 할 수 없게 되었는지 여부는 알기가 어렵습니다. 회상 요법은 사람들이 약간의 기억을 회복하도록 도와줌으로써 성공할 수 있지만 결과는 보통 적절합니다. 어느 정도 이 문제는 여전히 수수께끼로 남아 있습니다.

 

Q: How can the faith of the client be increased?

Q : 내담자의 믿음은 어떻게 증가될 수 있습니까?

 

A: Essentially there are two routes. One is by resolving the obstacles to faith in the client's life. The other is through the infectious nature of faith of therapist. Therapy is a mixture of the effects of the work that the client does by relating to the significant rupas in his life and the effects of being in the relationship with the therapist. These two work together.

A : 본질적으로 두 가지 경로가 있습니다. 하나는 내담자의 삶에 대한 믿음을 가로막는 장애물을 해결하는 것입니다. 다른 하나는 치료자의 믿음의 전염성을 통한 것입니다. 치료는 내담자가 인생에서 중요한 루빠와 관련하여 하는 작업의 효과와 치료자와의 관계에서 존재하는 것의 영향을 혼합한 것입니다. 이 두 가지는 함께 작동합니다.

 

Practical work 실습 작업

Finally we did some counselling exercises, working in threes.

 

마지막으로 우리는 3사람이 함께 상담 연습을 했습니다.

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